在語言教學中，CLT、CLIL、(immersion) 浸入式、(submersion) 沉浸式、EMI有何不同？
According to the Cambridge Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (Richards & Rodgers, 2014), Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is a method of teaching a second or foreign language that emphasizes the use of the language for communication. The goal of CLT is to develop communicative competence, or the ability to use the language effectively and appropriately in various real-life situations.
根據《劍橋語言教學與應用語言學詞典》（Richards & Rodgers，2014），溝通式語言教學法（CLT）是一種教授第二語言或外語的方法，強調使用語言進行溝通。CLT的目標是培養交流能力，即在各種真實生活情境中有效且適當地使用語言的能力。
*Strong, Weak CLT: https://www.tefl.net/methods/communicative-language-teaching.php?
Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is defined by Coyle, Hood, and Marsh (2010) as a teaching approach in which subjects or topics are taught through a second or foreign language. The goal of CLIL is to develop both content knowledge and language skills simultaneously.
學科內容與語言整合學習（CLIL）是一種透過第二語言或外語教授科目或主題的教學方法。CLIL的目標是同時培養內容知識和語言技能 (Coyle et al., 2010)。
Immersion programs, according to Genesee (1987), are educational programs in which students are placed in a linguistic and cultural environment where the target language is spoken and used extensively. The goal of immersion programs is to develop fluency and proficiency in the target language.
浸入式課程是一種學生被置於目標語言廣泛使用的語言和文化環境中的教育計劃。浸入式課程的目標是培養目標語言的流利和精通能力 (Genesee, 1987)。
Submersion, as described by Christian, Lightbown, and Spada (2006), refers to educational programs in which students who do not speak the dominant language of the school are placed in regular classrooms without additional support or accommodations for their language needs.
沉浸式是指學校中不會使用主要語言的學生被安排在没有額外支持的常規教室中的教育計劃 (Christian et al., 2006)。
English-Medium Instruction (EMI) refers to the use of English as the medium of instruction in non-English speaking countries (Li, 2017). The goal of EMI is to develop proficiency in English as a second or foreign language.
英語作為教學媒介（EMI）是指在非英語語系國家使用英語作為教學媒介。EMI的目標是培養英語作為第二語言或外語的精通能力 (Li, 2017)。
Christian, D., Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2006). How languages are learned (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.
Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL: Content and language integrated learning. Cambridge University Press.
Genesee, F. (1987). Learning through two languages: Studies of immersion and bilingual education. Newbury House Publishers.
Li, D. (2017). English-medium instruction in higher education: Challenges and strategies. Routledge.
Ohmori, A. (2014). Exploring the potential of CLIL in English language teaching in Japanese Universities: An innovation for the development of effective teaching and global awareness. The Journal of Rikkyo University Language Center, 32, 39-51.
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
theory、approach、methodology 和 method 的區別: bit.ly/3Gzo5co