[文法與詞彙Q&A] although, but, yet, even though, though, whereas, despite, in spite of 的區別
1. although, but, yet
-In theory it seems like a good idea, but I don’t think it’ll work in practice.
-In theory it seems like a good idea, although I don’t think it’ll work in practice.
-Although it seems like a good idea, I don’t think it will work in practice.
※注意：although, but 兩者只能取其一，不能同時並用
Although it seems like a good idea, but I don’t think it will work in practice. (X)
※ 亦可用 still、anyway (依然、還是) 來加強but, although的語氣
I wasn’t feeling very well, but I still went to work.
I wasn’t feeling very well, but I went to work anyway.
I still went to work, although I wasn’t feeling very well.
Although I wasn’t feeling very well, I went to work anyway.
It’s a simple yet very effective system.
In theory it seems like a good idea, (and) yet I don’t think it’ll work in practice.
Used as a conjunction, “yet” is similar in meaning to “but,” but it has a stronger effect on the reader or listener. There is perhaps more of a surprise associated with the former statement. Note that you can put “and” in front of “yet” when it comes at the beginning of a clause, but of course this is not possible with “but,” so you can write the following sentence:
“The cyclists were tired and hungry, all but exhausted, (and) yet they refused to give up in their attempt to finish the race.”
2. though, even though
though 比較口語，意思與although同，但though 可以放在句尾(當副詞用)
-Though he has lived for years in London, he writes in French. (雖然)—連接詞
-He has lived for years in London. He writes in French, though. (不過、但是)–副詞
even though (即便、儘管)用法與although 同, 語氣更強烈
-Even though I wasn’t feeling very well, I still went to work.
-Indonesia has a lot of natural resources, whereas Singapore has none.
-Whereas Indonesia has a lot of natural resources, Singapore has none.
※ although 與 whereas 的比較
although 含有驚訝的意味 (通常是第二個子句所透漏的訊息令人意外) We had a reasonable year in Asia, although sales fell a little in Japan.
Although sales fell a little in Japan, we had a reasonable year in the rest of Asia.
We had a reasonable year in Asia, whereas sales in Europe were quite disappointing.
※ while 的用法
Inflation rose by 3% last year, while house prices went up 6%. (=whereas)
While there are still some issues to resolve, I think we should go ahead. (=although)
C. despite/in spite of 的用法
despite 與 in spite of 意思同 although，但是用法不同；although 是連接詞，後面可接子句，despite/in spite of 為介係詞，後面必須接名詞或動名詞
Although sales increased, profits fell.
Despite the increase in sales, profits fell.
Although I was ill, I went to work.
In spite of my illness, I went to work.
Despite my illness, I went to work.
In spite of feeling ill, I went to work.
Despite feeling ill, I went to work.
Despite I felt ill, I went to work. (X)